The Chinese company, Samsung, has been ahead of TSMC in 3nm production, but none of them is managing to produce a high volume so that their customers can put products on the market.
Even so, although chip designers prefer TSMC, geopolitical uncertainty is causing them to diversify the production of their designs, and that only happens to carry out some to Samsung Foundry. The South Korean already has NVIDIA, IBM, Qualcomm and Baidu insurance as clients, although each one for different sectors.
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It should be noted that currently the consumption of chips plummeted and this affected data centers with order and equipment cancellations, NVIDIA will produce some GPU in the future using this lithography. IBM will produce some of its processor designs in this lithograph. Qualcomm its mobile processors. Baidu, the chips for its servers in data centers.
Samsung has been the first to switch from FinFETs to GAAFETs, the type of transistors with which chips are created. GAAFETs reduce power consumption by up to 45% at the same frequency vs. Samsung’s 5nm FinFET process, or improve performance by up to 23% at the same power. Samsung’s problems in attracting customers often have to do with chip design, testing, optimization and production tools, which are less advanced than TSMC’s.
It has improved in the last three years in this area, but its customers continue to complain about it and it is what often discourages more chip designers from using it as a foundry. That and that comparatively TSMC’s 5 nm are much better than Samsung’s 5 nm, although in the end, like everything else, even if Samsung’s processes are worse if they are offered cheaper they usually compensate.